• Chronic venous insufficiency encompasses a spectrum of conditions related to the signs and symptoms that occur as a result of damage to the veins in the legs. Damage to the one-way valves in the veins can occur due to obstruction in the case of deep vein thrombosis, valvular insufficiency in the case of varicose veins, or decreased contraction of the calf muscle surrounding the veins due to immobility. These changes cause blood to pool in the legs and put increased pressure on the walls of the veins.
  • Varicose veins are dilated superficial veins in the legs that appear as bulging blue protrusions under the skin. They are caused by damaged one-way valves in the veins that allow for the backwards flow of blood. Over time, these veins become more prominent and torturous, causing both symptomatic and aesthetic concerns.


  • Pain
  • Itching
  • Swelling
  • Burning
  • Fatigue
  • Heaviness
  • Skin discoloration

Risk Factors

  • Family history
  • Previous pregnancy
  • Occupation
  • Increasing age
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • History of blood clot in the leg (deep vein thrombosis)

Treatment Options

  • Conservative measures
    • Compression stockings
    • Regular exercise
    • Elevating the legs at rest
    • Diligent skin care
  • Sclerotherapy
  • Ablation therapy
    • Endovenous laser treatment (EVLT)
    • Cyanoacrylate adhesive (“glue”)
  • Surgical stripping or phlebectomy
  • Venoactive medications (ie: Venixxa, bioflavonoids)

* Compliance with treatment is important to prevent complications such as venous ulcers